The chemical composition of royal jelly has not been fully determined, as 97% of its components have been analyzed, but 3% remain unknown. Royal jelly contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes. Specifically, it contains 67% water, 12.5% proteins and amino acids, 11% simple sugars (monosaccharides) and 5% fatty acids. It also contains many trace elements, enzymes, antibacterial and antibiotic elements and traces of vitamin C. It does not contain any of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. It also contains a proportion of active substances, such as acetylcholine in excess of 1 mg / g and which has vasodilating properties, useful for the treatment of circulatory disorders. Traces of testosterone have been found but their amount is negligible, in relation to a man's daily testosterone production.
Royal jelly contains vitamins B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B12 and C. Pantothenic acid (B5) plays a major role in the metabolism of growing larvae.
The following minerals have been detected in royal jelly: sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, zinc, chromium, manganese and nickel.
29 amino acids have been identified, the most important being aspartic and glutamic acid. All the essential amino acids for humans are present in royal jelly and in fact in sufficient proportions.
The main one is 10-hydroxy-decenoic acid, which has antibacterial and fungicidal properties. It also contains hydroxy-fatty acids and dicarboxylic acids
The sugars in royal jelly are mainly 90% fructose and glucose, in a proportion similar to that of honey.
There is a wide range in the detailed values of its various components and this is due to various factors such as: the species-breed of bees, the collection area and the different flora encountered, the age of the larva from which it is collected, its storage conditions, as well as and the method used to determine its components. However, these differences are not large, so its composition can be considered relatively stable.
Pollen is lipids, sugars, proteins, vitamins, carotenoids, amino acids, polyphenols such as flavonoids and carbohydrates. Some of these ingredients are attributed its healing properties. A recent study evaluated the chemical composition and biological activities of Greek pollen and its results showed that its main constituents are sugars, fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, fatty acid esters and palmitic acid.
Natural source of energy and nutrients, vitamins & trace elements.